The blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the organs are called arteries, and those that are carbonated blood from the organs to the heart – veins. Thrombus – a clot of blood in the blood vessel, partially or totally, the blood flow. A disease, in which blood clots are formed, is called thrombosis. Most often, blood clots form in the veins of the legs. However, they may be formed in other parts of the body such as in the area of the anus, the blood vessels of the hands and the brain.
- Swelling of the affected leg.
- Pain in leg.
Vein thrombosis occurs under the influence of three factors.
The first factor: inside the blood vessels are lined with a thin layer of connective tissue, the so-called endothelium. Due to endothelial damage (due to mechanical impact or, more commonly, the disease of the blood vessels or the natural aging process), substances that promote the formation of clots enter the blood.
The second factor: blood flow influences the occurrence of thrombosis – the slower blood flow, the faster formation of blood clots. This explains why the most common vein thrombosis – because the veins into the arteries the blood moves more slowly.
The third factor: finally, blood coagulation plays an important role. The fact is that between the substances that promote blood clotting substances and thinning it should be a balance. Violation of this balance (for example, as a result of certain medications) leads to thrombosis.
Typically, thrombosis is caused by two or all these factors, although it happens that a crucial role is played by just any one of them.
Surgical removal of blood clots is rare. Most often in the diagnosis – deep vein thrombosis leg – the patient must strictly comply with bed rest, dissolve clots drugs are assigned to him. Primarily, these funds aim to prevent dangerous complications – pulmonary embolism. The fact is that the separation of the bunch from the vessel wall can occur and transfer it through the blood into the pulmonary artery. This condition – a real threat to the life of the patient, as the pulmonary blood flow is disturbed and the load on the heart is greatly increased.
It’s important to try to reduce the risk of thrombosis. The presence of predisposing factors complicates the situation. Thrombosis of deep veins of the legs is often observed in smokers and women taking hormonal contraceptives.
As a rule, the harbingers of thrombosis are pain in the legs. In addition, the affected foot swells greatly. Noticing these symptoms, you should see your doctor.
Examination of the patient and his response to pressing certain points on the affected leg, allow the doctor to assume the presence of thrombosis. To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor will further research, such as Doppler sonography, venography (make images of veins using contrast media).
Course of the disease
In most cases, early detection and timely treatment of thrombosis can be treated. If the clot is not completely dissolved, the venous blood flow is restored, but often at the same time there is a destruction of small vein valves, resulting in permanent impairment of the function of the veins. Sometimes a vein becomes blocked, and then the blood is flowing through the nearby (collateral) veins.
Bacteria can also cause a vein thrombosis. Sometimes vein thrombosis or cerebral venous sinuses is a complication of purulent infection or inflammation of the face or the middle ear. Therefore purulent infection of the upper part of the face should be treated with caution, you can not squeeze ulcers, as this can lead to infection of the underlying tissue.
To reduce the risk of pulmonary embolism after surgery or serious illness should be within two weeks in bed. Also exercises are recommended.