Infectious diseases

Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever is an acute infectious disease of the intestines. Appropriate medical services are informed of all cases of the disease without fail. The disease begins with a general malaise, headache, insomnia, lethargy, loss of appetite, constipation and fever. During the second week the symptoms increase. Tongue is covered with a bloom, the temperature rose to 40°C, there is diarrhea. On the skin characteristic rash appears as small pink spots. Impaired consciousness develops in patients with alternating delirium. Earlier typhoid fever has been called “nervous fever”.


Initial stage:

  • Fatigue. Headache.
  • Lack of appetite.
  • Apathy. Constipation.
  • Bleeding from the nose.
  • Fever.

Acute phase:

  • Fever.
  • Patches on the tongue.
  • Roseolous rash, acting on his stomach, chest and sides.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Diarrhea.


Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. It is fairly resistant, remains viable in water for 3-4 months, well propagated in milk and milk products, is killed by heat and disinfectants. Sources of infection – bacillicarriers and sick people. Route of infection – fecal-oral. Transmission of infection is possible through unwashed fruits and vegetables, water. The bacteria that cause typhoid fever penetrate the mucosa of the lower intestinal tract and multiply there. Then they enter with the blood to other organs and begin to produce a strong poison that can cause serious damage to internal organs.


Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics (chloramphenicol). The patient needs careful care and treatment of the common symptoms of the disease. It is necessary to ensure the normal operation of the heart and blood vessels. In all cases, the patient should be isolated.

When should you see a doctor? You should see a doctor as soon as the first symptoms of typhoid fever, as well as in cases of suspected infection.

The doctor will examine the patient, assess symptoms, in order to clarify the diagnosis he made a blood test and perform another survey.

Course of the disease

There is approximately two weeks from infection of typhoid fever to increase in body temperature. The first symptoms – headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, chills. After 9-11 days, a rash appears on the abdomen and chest in the form of small pink spots the size of a pinhead. Pulse is rare. In the absence of complications patients recover in 3-5 weeks. Usually people who have suffered greatly fever lose body weight. Repeated infection of the disease is milder. If the disease is extremely severe, it can lead to death of the patient. The cause of death is usually the circulatory failure and peritonitis. Pathogens are most affects the lungs, renal pelvis, the middle ear, pancreas, bone marrow, bladder, testicles and spine.

It is a dangerous disease. Earlier mortality among patients with typhoid fever was 10-30%. Today, thanks to the antibiotic chloramphenicol, it dropped to 2.1%.


Effective protection against typhoid fever is vaccination. The vaccine may be intravenous or oral. Vaccination has the protective effect for about a year. Vaccination against typhoid is recommended to make before a visit to the southern or tropical countries. It is important to observe good personal hygiene. Don’t drink unboiled water! The patient should be isolated and room should be disinfected. Patients are strictly forbidden to work with food, as well as kindergartens and schools. A person is considered healthy if three crops per typhoid bacteria were negative. It is important to identify the source of infection.