Medical Encyclopedia

Thyroid cancer

What is thyroid cancer?

Thyroid cancer is a malignant tumor of the thyroid gland. There are several forms of thyroid cancer. The most common is papillary cancer, which, unlike other forms, less aggressive, so the results of his treatment quite successful. Types of thyroid cancer originating from differentiated cells (true cancer or carcinoma), grow slowly and metastasize late. Undifferentiated thyroid cancer develops quickly. However, this form of cancer is relatively rare. Even more rarely observed so-called form medullary thyroid cancer (cancer of the C-cells). The disease is associated with genetic predisposition.

Symptoms of thyroid cancer

Early symptoms:

  • A modification of the previously enlarged thyroid gland.
  • The appearance of nodes.
  • Tightness neck.

Late symptoms:

  • Dense, with a rough surface, the nodes.
  • Hoarseness.
  • The increase of cervical lymph nodes.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Decrease in body weight.

Causes of thyroid cancer

The causes of thyroid cancer are not clear. It is proved that the occurrence of cancer affects the ionizing radiation of hormonal metabolism, and predisposition to certain forms of cancer due to heredity.

Treatment of thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer

After the detection of differential thyroid carcinoma and the treatment is almost always a chance that the tumor will continue to grow. In cancer of the thyroid gland surgery is shown. During the surgery usually removes the entire thyroid gland. If the cancer has metastasized to nearby tissues and lymph nodes, they also need to be removed. If after the operation in the human body, there are still remnants of thyroid tissue, which produces hormones, then a few weeks, patients received radiation with radioactive iodine. Then the patient must take daily hormone pills. These hormones - complete substitutes for thyroid hormone that the body no longer able to produce.

Self-treatment of thyroid cancer is not possible. If the family someone was ill with thyroid cancer should have regular checkups.

In the early stages the symptoms are not observed practically. Thyroid cancer is often detected only during an operation conducted by some other reasons. Any nodule palpable on the thyroid gland should be examined by a doctor.

Not always possible to immediately diagnose thyroid cancer. The doctor, suspecting a malignant tumor, patient surveys scanner will puncture biopsy, examines a piece of tissue through a microscope. In the event of confirmation of the diagnosis the patient admitted to a cancer hospital.

Course of the disease

The first symptoms of the disease - the appearance of a node in the neck, the increase in cervical lymph nodes. Most often thyroid cancer begins to form from the nodes, formed in the craw. Following a radiological study on cancer scintigram doctor can see the so-called "cold" node. "Cold" nodes - tissue, which appeared as a result of hemorrhage, cysts, calcification, inflammation, scarring of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency. Many of these nodes are benign.

Is thyroid cancer dangerous?

Thyroid cancer, as well as any other cancer, is dangerous. He is particularly susceptible to middle-aged women (over 40).

Prevention of thyroid cancer

For the prevention of thyroid cancer is recommended to use iodine, for example, salt fortified with iodine.

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