Medical Encyclopedia

Salmonellosis

What is salmonellosis?

Salmonellosis is a disease, which is caused by salmonella. Pathogen - a large group of Salmonella, with more than 2000 serotypes. Salmonella also cause typhoid and paratyphoid fever. In Europe and USA, the most common gastroenteritis - an inflammatory disease of the stomach and intestines, in which pathogens do not get into the blood. Septicaemic form of salmonellosis is less common - in this case, pathogens get into the blood and various organs from the intestine, then pockets of purulent lesions are formed.

Symptoms of salmonellosis

Symptoms of gastroenteritis:

  • Vomiting, diarrhea.
  • The slight increasing of temperature.
  • Lethargy, exhaustion.

Symptoms of sepsis:

  • Vomiting, diarrhea.
  • Chill.
  • Fever.
  • Drowsiness.

Causes of salmonellosis

The main route of infection – nutritional, which is caused with the consumption of water and food, which contains a large number of Salmonella. This is usually observed at improper cooking. Salmonella infection occurs less often in direct contact with a sick person or animal. The main symptoms of salmonellosis - vomiting, diarrhea, exhaustion.

Treatment of salmonellosis

Salmonellosis

At the initial stage of the disease the patient can not take anything to eat, but must drink a lot of liquid. When severe vomiting and diarrhea and electrolyte, fluid deficit must be compensated by the intravenous administration of fluids. Septicemic form of salmonellosis is treated with antibiotics. When gastroenteritis, which is caused by salmonella, antibiotics are not prescribed necessarily.

After every bowel patients should clean and disinfect the toilet. Hands should be washed with warm water and soap. In addition, strict adherence to the rules of storage and cooking is required.

At higher temperatures, frequent vomiting, profuse liquid stool and deterioration of general condition you should consult a doctor.

Gastroenteritis is diagnosed on the basis of bacteriological analysis of faeces, vomit and gastric washings. With suspected septic salmonellosis doctors take blood for serological analysis.

All cases of salmonella illness should be reported to the competent medical authority.

Course of the disease

Disease begins acutely, after 14-18 hours after ingestion of food, which is contaminated with salmonella: there are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, loose stools plentiful. Typically, the temperature rises slightly. If vomiting and diarrhea does not stop and continues to increase dehydration, it can lead to exsicosis. Dry mouth can be felt, tongue is coated with a scurf. Leather, which is gathered in folds, cracks down badly. Blood thickens, the formation of blood clots is possible. In the presence of timely treatment of salmonellosis in 2-3 days, but no later than two weeks, diarrhea goes away. Vomiting and fever usually stop before 10 days. Patients will soon recover.

Purulent lesions

In septic forms of salmonella, pus from the mucous membrane of the intestine very quickly enter the patient's blood. Inflammation spreads throughout the body. Usually the bones, meninges, lung and pericardium are affected. Patients have fever and chills. Due to circulatory disorders, death can occur.

Prevention of salmonellosis

Especially dangerous are those products, which can be rapid multiplication of Salmonella, this contributes to improper storage of food products.

Some bacteria grow at temperatures 4-5°C, so the food from the refrigerator should be subjected to heat treatment.

Kitchen equipment must be kept in exemplary cleanliness.

Other articles:

Leprosy

Erysipelas