Rabies is viral infectious zoonotic disease with contact mechanism of transmission, proceeding with the development of severe progressive CNS disease deaths. This is one of the long-known diseases. It is described in letters of Mesopotamia and Egypt. When a person becomes infected with rabies, he dies. Pathogen (neurotropic virus family Rabdoviridae, kind Lyssavirus) enters the saliva of an infected animal through a wound in the human body. Other methods of infection are also possible.
People are relatively resistant to the virus of rabies: the disease occurs only in 10-20% of infected people. However, in cases of suspected rabies prophylactic doctors use passive immunization, even before the diagnosis of rabies.
Rabies is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases in the world.
- Redness and pain at the site of the bite.
- Increase in temperature.
- Paralysis of the muscles of the pharynx and larynx.
- Shortness of breath.
- Respiratory paralysis.
This disease is found throughout the world except Australia and Antarctica. After the Second World War, there was an epidemic of rabies each year to advance on the 50 km from Eastern Europe to the West. Several decades foxes were the main carriers of rabies in Europe. Since 1983, people have successfully started to vaccinate foxes with oral vaccine method of drinking water. And now the main carriers of rabies are cats.
According to WHO, rabies is rare in the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and Sweden. Quite often infuriating registered in Belgium, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, France, Switzerland and Turkey.
Rabies vaccine produced in the laboratory from the spinal cord of infected rabbit’s rabies. If there is suspicion of being infected with rabies immunization carried out immediately: the action of the vaccine is shown in 2-3 weeks.
Biting wound should be washed with soap and water, and then process some disinfectant. This is extremely important because it inhibits the activity of alkaline soap rabies virus.
Biting wounds should always be treated only by a doctor. If you suspect a bite of an infected domestic or wild animal, you should immediately contact a doctor.
A doctor treats a wound and clarifies the circumstances of its origin. For example, if the bite is made to wildlife or it happened in a country where cases of rabies recorded quite often, the doctor immediately send the patient to the hospital for vaccination. Vaccination is repeated several times during the month. Prior to the start of the vaccination to prevent rabies doctors injected human immunoglobulin. It protects the human body for 1-2 weeks. During this time, experts examine tissues and organs of the animal, trying to determine the presence of rabies.
Course of the disease
Virus enters through a wound in the lymphatic system and in the gray matter of the central nervous system. The time from infection to onset of the disease is usually 29-90 days. With the penetration of the virus into the cells of the brain first symptoms of rabies are redness and pain at the site of the bite, fatigue, nausea, weakness, vomiting, headache, then agitation, hallucinations, chills, and muscle tremors, drooling, fever, fear (fear of water) , impaired swallowing. In paralysis of the nerves of the pharynx and larynx, the voice becomes hoarse. Paralysis of respiratory muscles and strengthens the progressive dyspnea. After 3-5 days, the patient dies.
Don’t touch a wild animal, especially if it has lost the natural instinct of self-preservation. For example, in rabies deer bleating loudly, her back paralyzed limbs tremble.
Pets should be regularly vaccinated against rabies. Treat sick animals with rabies is prohibited. In every case of rabies you should advise the appropriate services.