Oncology

Prostate cancer

The prostate gland (prostate) is part of the male genital organs. This is a small gland, which distinguishes the secret of joining the semen and sperm activity supports. Size and shape, it resembles a chestnut. The prostate gland weighs about 20 grams and is located between the bladder and rectum. It covers the initial part of the urethra, in which opens vas deferens and seminal vesicles. The prostate gland – is surrounded by a capsule, which includes 30-50 individual glands surrounded by fibromuscular septa. These glands produce an alkaline fluid secret, resembling milk, which at the time of ejaculation is mixed with sperm, stimulates and protects them from the acidic vagina. Prostate cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm of urinary organs in males. Prostate cancer often suffers from men 50-70 years of age. Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer in men (after lung cancer and digestive organs), and one of the leading causes of death after the age of 50 years. However, prostate cancer is much rarer than its benign growth – adenoma.

Symptoms

  • Violation of urine.
  • Painful urination.
  • The appearance of blood in the urine.
  • Back pain.

Causes

Similarly, the cause of prostate cancer is unknown. Suggest that prostate cancer is caused by hormonal imbalance, as well as hereditary factors. However, it is clear that tumor growth is accelerating male hormones (androgens) and female sex hormones (estrogens), are also formed in the male body; stimulate the formation of nodes of the prostate gland degeneration in the connective tissue. Under their influence, the prostate becomes more sensitive to the action of androgens.

Treatment

Treatment depends on the nature of the tumor, the extent of its prevalence, the characteristics of the patient body. In the early stages of cancer (A and B) removes the entire prostate gland. Sometimes it can stop tumor growth by radiotherapy or by chemicals that inhibit the activity of androgens. In the third stage (C) disease is removed not only the prostate gland, and testes but because they also stimulate the growth of tumors produced by androgens. As an additional treatment may be applied radiation therapy can be administered anti-androgens. In the later stage (D) other than those mentioned additional resources assigned to hormones, chemotherapy is used, slowing down the process of multiplication of cancer cells.

Digital rectal examination performed by the urologist – the main method of diagnosis of prostate cancer. So every man older than 45 years at least once a year should go to an urologist to routine inspection.

The tumor may press on the urethra. This leads to a violation of urination. In urine, blood appears, back pain, lower back. If you see these symptoms you should seek emergency medical attention.

In order to establish the diagnosis, the doctor feels the seal or prostate enlargement. The definitive diagnosis allows us to establish a study of prostate tissue (biopsy). In order to determine whether other organs are damaged, give the tumor metastasis, carried ultrasound, x-rays. Might also be possible an X-ray studies, scintigraphy and computed tomography.

Course of the disease

In the disease are four stages:

  • Stage 1: prostate tumor struck.
  • Stage 2: prostate tumor struck, and the form of cancer has changed.
  • Stage 3: Tumor extends beyond the prostate gland (the seminal vesicles).
  • Stage 4: the tumor spreads to other tissues (eg, pelvic bone).

BPH

BPH is a benign tumor of the prostate, which begins to grow out of paraurethral glands. This tumor is more common in older men.