Medical Encyclopedia

Myocardial infarction

What is myocardial infarction?

Myocardial infarction is heart disease, which is caused by an acute lack of its blood supply, with the emergence of foci of necrosis in the heart.

Symptoms of myocardial infarction

  • Chest pain, which is radiating to the shoulder, arm, neck and upper abdomen.
  • Nausea, sweating.
  • Pressing pain in the sternum.
  • Irregular heartbeat.

Causes of myocardial infarction

As a result of accumulation of substances in the walls of a high-protein and blood fat, coronary heart conductivity decreases gradually, so the myocardium constantly receives too little oxygen. The blood vessels that supply the heart muscle, become brittle, their lumen narrows.

With a sudden increase in physical or psychological stress, oxygen demand increases and reductions altered blood vessels can reach critical limits, further reducing blood flow. At this time, usually myocardial infarction occurs. Another cause of myocardial infarction is a blockage of a blood vessel thrombus.

Treatment of myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction

The patient is hospitalized. The intensive care unit is taking all necessary measures to assist in the rescue of the patient.

The best prevention of myocardial infarction is to avoid the risk factors, which are:

  • Malnutrition.
  • Alcoholism.
  • Hypertension.
  • Diabetes.
  • Lack of exercise.

When the pain in the heart, you should see a doctor. If one of these symptoms, you should call an ambulance immediately.

The doctor usually cannot immediately accurate diagnosis, so patients are received painkillers sedatives, nitro drugs and oxygen. In the intensive care unit a patient are immediately connected to the monitor, registering heart rate. When heart rhythm disturbances, drugs are appointed. Doctors do a blood test for the presence of certain blood enzymes that indicate a myocardial infarction. Sometimes doctors have to do chest compressions and ventilation. At the end of the acute stage of the disease a blood clot, which plugged the blood vessel, is dissolved with medications or removed by surgery.

Myocardial infarction occurs suddenly - the person feels pain in the chest that can spread to the shoulder, arm, neck and upper abdomen. Often the pain attack is accompanied by fear of death, difficulty breathing, symptoms of heart failure. However, this does not always happen. Myocardial infarction - the insidious disease, its first symptoms may not be as sharp, with no pain, show weakness and disorders of the digestive system. At the early stage of myocardial infarction there are life-threatening complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias, shock, rupture of the heart wall.

About 10% of myocardial infarctions are asymptomatic. Infarction later is diagnosed as a result of examination of the patient.

Myocardial infarction is characterized by cardiac arrhythmias. This condition is dangerous to the life of the patient. The patient is prescribed medication, given the nature of cardiac disorders. For example, if a slow heart beat, atropine is prescribed, with quickening - lidocaine. If it’s necessary to reduce pain, morphine and other analgesics are used. Nitroglycerin preparations are used for dilating the blood vessels and reducing the pressure. The oxygen is supplied artificially. To suppress the anxiety, sedatives are prescribed to the patient.

The patient is brought to the cardiac intensive care unit. The patient is connected to a device that records the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat. Patient's electrocardiogram is recorded. In addition, a blood test is done to determine the content of enzymes. Results of the analysis are important to determine the size of the infarction. If a heart attack is triggered by blood clots, doctors try to dissolve it with drugs (thrombolysis). The most common complication of myocardial infarction - a life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia (observed in 90% of patients) - ventricular fibrillation, tachycardia and arrhythmia.

If there are no complications, 10-14 days after the heart attack patients are discharged home. In the following weeks he should gradually increase physical activity. After myocardial infarction man ought to gentle lifestyle, avoid stress, heavy physical work, etc. Drinking alcohol is impermissible. Many patients are very difficult to change their usual way of life, to give up hobbies and habits. Therefore, usually patients with myocardial infarction is sent to a rehabilitation center, where they are assigned the best treatment, had special training programs, provided psychological assistance. The mission of rehabilitation - to help people get back to normal life in society.

Medical prevention of myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction can occur suddenly. However, sometimes even before the heart attack, the symptoms can be distinguished. If you experience regular pain in the heart, you should see a doctor and do an electrocardiogram. In severe cases, the patient is operated. There are two ways.

Bypass surgery - surgery to create a new flow path to bypass clogged blood vessels in areas of the heart. More often leg vein is used as a shunt. After the operation, the oxygen delivery to the heart becomes normal. Often, the surgeon must impose shunts in several places, as narrowing of the coronary vessels are multiple.

With a slight narrowing of the lumen of the coronary artery, balloon dilatation is performed. The balloon catheter is placed in the artery and air is blown into it, so the lumen expands.

Sex life after myocardial infarction

In patients with myocardial infarction, sex life fades. However, from sexual intercourse patient should be avoided until the first time after a heart attack. Physician will give advice on this matter.

But regular using of hormonal contraceptive pills can lead to a change in the fat content and insulin in the blood, blood clots, which contributes to the development of heart disease.

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