Lymphogranulomatosis (Hodgkin disease) is tumoral disease is the lymphatic system, characterized by malignant hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue with the formation of lymphogranuloma in the lymph nodes and internal organs. The lymphatic system is a complex of vessels that carry lymph from interstitial fluid from the bloodstream electrolytes, water, proteins, etc. Lymphatic system consists of lymph nodes and blood vessels, spleen, thymus gland (thymus) and bone marrow. The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system and adds to venous. The lymphatic system is involved in the metabolism of the body and removes waste products from various cells and tissues, and yet it takes foreign particles (bacteria) that enter the circulatory system.
Lymphogranulomatosis refers to malignant lymphomas. The emergence and increase of the tumor is caused by a violation of the regulation of cell growth. It is assumed that this disturbance is localized in the lymph nodes. Specific cells are formed of two types – Hodgkin’s mononuclear cells and multinucleated cells Reed-Sternberg.
The tumor cells gradually spread throughout the lymphatic system of the human body. The disease was named after the famous British pathologist Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866). The disease is distinguished by two age peaks. The peak incidence in young persons usually observed at the age of 15-30 years. it is characterized by the same frequency in men and women. The second peak of incidence of lymphogranulomatosis is usually observed in adults over the age of 50 years. The second peak is characterized by a high incidence of males.
- Swollen lymph nodes.
- Pruritus, and diarrhea.
- Increased night sweats.
- Fluctuations in body temperature.
- Weight loss.
- General weakness.
Cause of the disease are not clear. Perhaps the uncontrolled cell growth can be caused by a virus that has penetrated into the body, and environmental factors.
First of all, to avoid the disease progresses, you must stop the growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. To do this, some parts of the lymphatic system or the whole system exposed to X-rays. At relapse after irradiation is effective chemotherapy. Drugs (cytostatics) are effective in the disease process in the cells. In the course of treatment should be periodically survey the general blood tests.
There are no preventive measures Hodgkin’s disease. Self-treatment of lymphogranulomatosis is not possible.
If lymph nodes are swollen (especially neck) and there is persistent itching, diarrhea, increased night sweats, fever, should seek emergency medical attention.
First, the doctor will examine the patient, and then perform the fence lymphatic tissue samples for laboratory testing. The presence of tissue-specific Hodgkin’s cells and Reed-Sternberg indicates the lymphogranulomatosis. Then the doctor must determine the stage of disease. He will conduct various studies, such as computed tomography, ultrasound and x-rays, will produce samples of bone marrow sampling, a blood test. After studying the results of research doctor will prescribe treatment.
Course of the disease
As a result of uncontrolled cell growth of lymphatic system tumor arises. Hodgkin’s disease differs from the strict spread of one group of lymph nodes to the other. Lymph nodes are greatly increased (as a rule, neck and chest). The patient is weak. The disease is accompanied by persistent itching, diarrhea, fever, weight loss. If untreated, the disease process extends to cover all the new groups of lymph nodes and internal organs. In 50-95% of cases (depending on the extent of damage) the use of X-ray radiation and chemotherapy can halt progression of the disease. It is important as early as possible to begin treatment.
Doctors distinguish four stages of lymphogranulomatosis. Stage I – affected lymph nodes in one group; II stage – struck by several groups of lymph nodes; III stage – struck some lymphoid structures; IV stage – struck a variety of internal organs such as spleen and liver.