Infectious diseases

Leprosy

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease. Disease occurs in South-East Asia, Africa and South America, sometimes in Western Europe. Skin, mucosa and superficial nerves are affected with leprosy. There are several forms of leprosy, lepromatous, tuberculoid and borderline (dimorphic).

Tuberculoid leprosy

In this form of the peripheral nerves and tissues involved in the disease process. The disease begins with the appearance of skin and her slightly pigmented spots with sharp edges. Due to damage to the nerves, the sensitivity of the patient is completely absent. Over time, this leads to severe paralysis.

Leproma

Pathogens penetrate the skin and begin to multiply. The lesions are located on the face and limbs in the form of multiple cusps and nodes that have a reddish-brown color. Often these bumps and knots coalesce and give the face a sick form of “lion’s faces.” Loss of eyebrows and eyelashes are often observed in patients. Destruction (leproma) exists for a long time, months, and years, and then fall to the formation of deep ulcers. In addition to skin mucous membranes are affected, especially of the nose. Leproma decay deformed nose. Often leproma of the eye leads to blindness.

Symptoms

Tuberculoid leprosy:

  • One or more lesions of the skin (slightly pigmented spots with sharp edges).
  • Lack of sensitivity lesions associated with the death of the nerves.
  • Disfigurement of face and limbs.
  • Paralysis.

Leproma:

  • Loss of eyelashes and eyebrows.
  • Decrease sweating.
  • The weakening of the sensitivity (tactile and thermal).
  • Rapid progression of the disease.
  • Paralysis.

Causes

Leprosy is caused by rod-shaped bacteria Mucobacterium leprae. The incubation period of the disease – from 9 months to 40 years.

Treatment

Early diagnosis of leprosy can hope to recover. There are several drugs, which are used to treat leprosy. But they can not bring back to life the dead nerves; do not get rid of paralysis and other irreversible lesions. If a face or other body parts are strongly deformed, plastic surgery is used.

In Central and Eastern Europe, the disease is rare. People who come in contact with leprosy patients, it is recommended to consult a specialist in infectious diseases for routine inspection.

The doctor will take the analysis scraping mucosa of the nasal septum or the affected skin.

Course of the disease

Course of the disease depends on the form of the disease. In the absence of treatment for all of its forms is typical – the appearance of cusps and nodes that merge and can form larger lesions. Then the nerves die, paralysis develops. Limbs are heavily disfigured. Tuberculoid leprosy has the possibility of spontaneous recovery. In the case of lepromatous leprosy patient’s condition deteriorates. As the disease progresses, nerve trunks are affected, which become thickened and painful. Later there are irreversible neurological symptoms.