There are various disorders of keratinization of the outer layer of the skin. For example, keratosis – a thickening of the stratum corneum (actinic) of the skin, which is characteristic for a number of non-inflammatory diseases. More common hyperkeratosis (gr. hyper – above, over; keras (keratos) – horn) – excessive or insufficient development of exfoliation of the stratum corneum. There is a separate group of diseases of the stratum corneum – ichthyosis – skin disease mostly innate, which is the excessive formation and accumulation of horny scales on the skin that resemble fish scales. The normal appearance of hyperkeratosis – after post-traumatic wound. In this case, the function of the skin layer, which ensures the formation of new skin for rapid replacement of the missing part of the skin, temporarily enhanced. Extremely unpleasant, but not dangerous, violation of keratinization of the skin – it is dandruff appearing on the scalp and hairy parts of the body. When there is psoriasis, violation of keratinization of the skin occurs, it resembles the scales appears in other parts of the body. Prolonged exposure to sunlight is also a cause of keratosis: skin becomes wrinkled, blood vessels are dilated, and surface layer is compacted.
- Keratinization of hair follicles.
- A thick layer of hard skin.
- Painful thickening of the skin on the palms and soles.
- Peeling of the skin.
- Bumpy skin.
The formation of blisters on the soles and palms during physical exercise is a natural and protects the skin from excessive pressure. In the areas, which are exposed to pressure and friction as a result of increased cell division in the skin layer of the epidermis, sprout extra thick and dense stratum corneum is formed. However, corn is often the result of inflammation of the skin. In women in menopause corn may appear resembling a violation of keratinization of the skin on the palms and soles. Especially often very dense thickening of the soles of the feet are formed, there is pain because of their pressure on the downstream tissue. Many people suffer from such violations. Calluses on the soles and the violation of keratinization of the skin can still be an important symptom of foot deformities such as flat feet, flattening of the transverse arch of the foot.
Skin like sandpaper
For a variety of disorders of keratinization of the skin, the skin in the affected areas becomes like sandpaper. Often such roughness appears on the hairy parts of the body. Here, the cells of the stratum corneum form growths that resemble warts.
It is a violation of keratinization of the skin of an epidemic nature manifests itself in children. Most often, acne or pimples are formed on the face (small dense slightly raised above the skin nodule). There are various forms of lichen, in which the centers of keratinization may occur almost throughout the body. Often in the locations of knots there is a strong itch. Lichen planus – a chronic disease of unknown etiology, that may develop when taking certain medications and chronic disease. Lesions are flat, purple, itchy, have polygonal shape. Keratosis and lichen are very similar, but do not confuse them all the same.
Often experts can accurately describe the symptoms of the disease, but the true cause of the disease remains unknown. So often only the symptoms of keratosis are treated, the very same disease often cannot be disinfected. In some cases, the symptoms disappear on their own. For the treatment of painful calluses care products for soles of the feet are used or special medical pedicure is done. Eventually corn is reduced so, that the person does not feel pain. The excess of the stratum corneum of the skin can be removed with the provided special saws. Furthermore, there are effective ointments, which are easily removed by the cornified layer of skin, or medications that cause delamination or flaking of the skin and keratinous corns. Also bath with salt is effective, it can be prepared at home.
Violation of keratinization of the skin may be the first symptom of skin cancer. When there is darkening, inflammation, tenderness of the skin of these places you must see a doctor immediately.