Cardiology

Hypovolemic shock

All body systems are functioning only if the heart into the circulatory system delivers enough blood. If suddenly, for some reason this process is disrupted, there is hypovolemic shock in body. It is called a “cold”, as it is characterized by spasm of the small blood vessels of the limbs and the weakening circulation, which leads to cooling. This condition is dangerous for the patient. Hypovolemic shock can occur suddenly or develop gradually over a period of several minutes. The shock comes from the fact that the brain and other organs with blood do not get enough oxygen. First, the human body tries to compensate for the lack of oxygen in the blood by releasing adrenaline, which has a stimulating effect on the cardiovascular system. If that does not work, then the circulation is maintained by the strong reduction of the blood vessels of almost all organs. If the condition persists, the blood is oxidized, it becomes thicker and it formed clots. Circulation of blood worsens, blood pressure decreases, the blood supply of the brain is disturbed.

Symptoms

  • Frequent weak pulse.
  • Pallor.
  • Cold skin.
  • Chill.
  • Cold sweat.
  • Concern.
  • Severe weakness.

Causes

One of the causes of hypovolemic shock – reduction in blood volume. This may be due to internal or external bleeding resulting from trauma. Hypovolemic shock can occur in myocardial infarction, strongly expressed heart failure and muscle relaxation of blood vessels. The blood accumulates in the blood vessels of the legs and abdomen, as a result, blood flow to the brain is deteriorating and organs in the upper body. Hypovolemia may occur due to a significant decrease in blood glucose, impaired renal function, poisoning, allergic reactions, burns. Shock is also possible after digestive problems involving projectile vomiting and diarrhea, high fluid loss, with the defeat of renal tubules.

Treatment

The patient is laid on his back on a flat surface, lift legs tucked under their pillow or an object. The patient was released from hindering clothing, cover with a warm blanket. Further treatment procedure can be performed only by a doctor. If it’s necessary, he appoints intravenous fluids or blood transfusions. The patient is given pure oxygen to breathe (often conducted ventilation), injected drugs, stimulating blood circulation. If the patient is very restless and has a lot of pain, in this case also medications are prescribed.

Hypovolemic shock is a dangerous. Therefore, if you suspect it, you should call an ambulance.

Patients receive mechanical ventilation, fluid and medication, which are injected droplets, it stimulates circulation. The doctor monitors the blood pressure, work of the heart and pulse of the patient, making an electrocardiogram.

Course of the disease

Hypovolemic shock can be identified by the following criteria:

  • At first, pulse rate and weaker, after a while he could barely detectable.
  • The patient is pale, the skin is cold, there are cold sweat on forehead and a chill.
  • The patient becomes restless.
  • Most patients stay in the mind, however, their orientation is most often violated.
  • Patients respond to verbal instructions, but soon, due to the weakness, they fail to respond to stimuli.

If hypovolemic shock has already been in the patient and there is a chance that it could happen again, in this case the patient can not eat or drink – the people who provide first aid should remember this. When eating the circulatory system of the patient is subjected to additional stress. This can lead to loss of consciousness, vomiting, and finally to suffocation.