Medical Encyclopedia

Hypertension

What is blood pressure?

Blood pressure in adults is considered high if for two consecutive days exceeds the average of 149/90 mm Hg - this boundary is set by WHO. Physicians devote more important lower figure - the diastolic pressure that occurs during relaxation of the heart muscle. Optimal blood pressure - 120/80 mm Hg, normal - 130/85 mm Hg. There are three degrees of hypertension: mild - (140-159)/(90-99) mm Hg, average Ц (160-179)/(100-109) mm Hg and high Ц (180-200)/(110-119) mm Hg.

What is mm Hg?

Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury (mm Hg). Diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg means that the mercury climbed to 90 mm. Modern pressure instruments do not contain mercury, but the figures correspond to the old system of measurement.

What is hypertension?

Hypertension - high blood pressure or excess of arterial blood pressure above normal blood pressure, which are observed in the members of this age group. For each patient with high blood pressure it is extremely important to measure it regularly. There is no need to visit the doctor: buy a device for measuring the pressure and independently monitor them. Often, blood pressure, which is measured by patient, is lower than the pressure, which is measured by doctor. The cause of this may be the daily fluctuations of pressure, but more often - it's called "hypertension expectations" because many people experience anxiety and get nervous at the doctor.

In men, hypertension is more common. The probability of occurrence of the disease increases with age. Men under 50 years old are more prone to the disease, and after 50 years - women.

With a slight increase in blood pressure, first of all, you should try to lead a healthy lifestyle and give up bad habits. Help of all family is sometimes needed for this.

A person with hypertension should eat right. To facilitate the treatment of the disease, many patients should lose weight. This may be assigned to a special diet or exercise therapy. Formation of practical skills must take place under the guidance of experts. To improve overall health patient is recommended to visit a health club. You can also jogging and exercise.

Doctors often measure the blood pressure even in the absence of complaints from patients. However, when a patient has headaches, dizziness, blurred vision, nasal bleeding, measurement of blood pressure is mandatory. If a patient with hypertension has seizures, incoordination, vomiting, pain in the heart - the symptoms, which are life-threatening, he should see a doctor!

The doctor will measure primarily high blood pressure, find out the presence of other diseases in the patient, and will ask the patient about any medications he takes, it feeds about bad habits, try to find out possible violations of fat metabolism. Physicians need to know whether the patient has hypertension earlier and he had been treated by this. Doctor takes an interest of patient conditions and atmosphere in his family. In addition, he measured the height, weight and pulse of the patient, check the back of the eye, and performs laboratory analysis of blood and urine.

Symptoms of hypertension

At first, there are no symptoms, but later appears:

  • Bleeding from the nose.
  • Dizziness.
  • Vomiting.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Anxiety, convulsions.
  • Heart failure.
  • Chest pain.

In a medical book I met: "Your blood pressure is considered normal if it is 100 + human age" - this formula is wrong, it can not be used!

Causes of hypertension

Hypertension

If the doctor suggests the presence of primary hypertension, causes of pressure increase are usually unclear. Temporary or permanent increase in pressure can be caused by a number of reasons Ц obesity, salty foods, alcohol, smoking, lack of exercise, stress, noise, heredity, etc. The narrower the vessels, the higher the pressure. If a diagnosis is a secondary hypertension, the high blood pressure is caused by other factors. Pressure increases in some diseases of the heart and kidney, in diabetes. In these cases it is necessary to treat the underlying disease, which causes a hypertension. Sometimes the pressure increase is only temporary (labile hypertension). There is no clear distinction between normal and slightly high blood pressure. Malignant hypertension is possible too, when blood pressure is consistently high, above 200/140 mm Hg.

Treatment of hypertension

At the beginning of the disease doctors try to treat without the use of drugs. In the event that the diastolic pressure is increased to 130 mm Hg, medications are prescribed. In some cases, help to reduce the pressure:

  • weight loss;
  • reduction of salt;
  • complete abstinence from alcohol and cigarettes;
  • autogenic training;
  • no stress;
  • refraining from the use of hormonal contraceptives.

If these measures are not enough, or the patient does not fulfill the requirements, in such cases lowering the pressure medications are used. However, the patient, using these drugs should be aware that medications often have side effects. It used to be that drugs that lower blood pressure should be consumed throughout life. Today, doctors say that the successful treatment eliminates the need for medication, especially if a person leads a healthy lifestyle.

Less salt! More potassium! This is the key principle of power for a patient with hypertension. If you have decided to reduce their salt intake or completely abandon it, at first all the food will seem tasteless. Taste buds are very used to the salt. The taste of food can be improved by using herbs and spices. Canned foods contain a lot of salt. The use of drugs that lower the pressure, promotes potassium loss, so you need use products with its high content. They are potatoes, bananas, oranges, raisins, dried apricots and other dried fruits and nuts.

Course of the disease

Most often, the cause of hypertension is unknown. This is called primary hypertension. Nutrition, genetic factors, hormonal metabolism, stress has an impact on its appearance. It depends on the sex and age of the person. About 5% of people suffer secondary hypertension that occurs when kidney disease, heart and blood vessels. Some medication can cause hypertension too.

In hypertension, the likelihood of brain damage, heart and blood vessels increases. The average life expectancy is reduced (especially in the presence of other risk factors such as high blood lipids, overweight).

There are many drugs that increase blood pressure, especially when drugs are used for a long time. Your blood pressure may rise when taking hormonal contraceptives. Smokers, obese women are more prone to heart disease.

How to avoid hypertension?

In the regulation of blood pressure helps: healthy living, healthy body weight, physical activity, healthy food and reducing the use of alcohol and tobacco.

Other articles:

Cardiac arrhythmias

Pericarditis