Medical Encyclopedia

Helminthic diseases

What is helminthic disease?

There are more than 20 different species of worms that can live in the human body and cause disease. Symptoms and course of the disease may be very different. Worms are parasites. There are several stages of development of the worms. Some of the worms in the development process change the "owner".

Symptoms of helminthic disease

  • Itching in the anal area.
  • Helminth eggs in feces.
  • Dark circles under the eyes, pallor.
  • Anemia.
  • Allergic skin diseases.
  • Vomiting.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Emaciation.
  • Inflammation of the rectum (proctitis).
  • Perianal eczema.
  • Bedwetting.
  • Inflammation of the vagina.
  • Disorders of the nervous nature.

Causes of helminthic disease

Usually the eggs or larvae of worms enter the body with contaminated food, unwashed vegetables and fruits. However, infection also occurs through unwashed hands. Helminth infections in children spread rapidly. Worms lay eggs on the skin around the anus, which often causes a painful itching and makes the child brushing the skin. Some types of worms enter the body through the bite of an insect. Infection of children helminthic diseases can occur in the sandbox, which has a dog or cat feces. Once the worms, their eggs or larvae enter the body, they settle in the organs and tissues that are most relevant to their development, such as small or large intestine, blood, lymph, liver, lungs, and brain. Worms mature, breed and withdraw of the human body and find a new "owner", ie the cycle continues. Sick people and children are especially susceptible to helminthes.

Treatment of parasitic diseases

Helminthic diseases

There are some highly effective and completely harmless to human drugs that kill the worms, larvae and eggs that are in the patient's body. If you find tapeworms, doctors prescribe drugs intended to kill the adult worms. The so-called worming medications have a broader spectrum of action and act on several types of worms. Simultaneous treatment of all family members and the strict regime of hygiene to avoid re-infection is imperative for a successful deworming. In some cases it is necessary to remove the affected organ or part of it.

Self-medication with parasitic diseases is unacceptable. Such tools home medicine, like garlic and tree ferns, apply only to specific types of worms. Before you use these tools, it is necessary to find out exactly how a patient suffering views helminthiasis. When parasitic diseases, it is best to consult a doctor immediately.

Young children should be checked for the presence of worms. When the first symptoms of parasitic diseases have appeared, it is necessary to see a doctor. The risk groups include children, pet lovers, farmers, breeders, and people who ate fruits and vegetables that are grown on organic fertilizers. Human roundworm do not affect cats and dogs. Animals can bring "the street" eggs of these parasites, and if a person stroke a cat or dog before eating food without washing his hands, he can get ascarids.

The doctor will determine the form of worms, which caused the disease, after which he prescribe treatment. Some types of worms can be easily seen in the stool or in the anus, while others can be detected only with a microscope. You may need blood tests and additional tests. Diagnosis is made on the basis of what kind of parasite was found. Doctor will prescribe treatment in accordance with this fact.

The most important helminthic diseases

Helminthic diseases (helminthiasis) are quite common. Each year, more than a billion people are sick helminthiasis. Diseases are more common in developing countries with tropical climates, where poor sanitary conditions. The most common parasitic disease is enterobiasis (Latin Enterobius vermicularis). Disease is caused by tiny parasitic worms - pinworms. They live in the lower part of the small intestine, large intestine, and at night the female crawls out of the anus to lay eggs, causing itching in the area. Quite quickly the eggs larvae appear. Most often, children are ill with the disease. Ascariasis is caused by roundworms (Latin Ascaris lumbricoides), they are similar in size and shape to the earthworm. This kind of helminthiasis is also more common in children than in adults. Contaminated food, dirty hands are the reason for getting the larvae in the human body.

Are tapeworms dangerous to health?

Almost all species of tapeworm develops in the intermediate host. In the human body, they get with infected products: meat, fruit, vegetables and drinking water. Tapeworm eggs may be in pet hair, the physical contact they can enter the human body. Bovine tapeworm grows to 4-12 m long. Its last owner - the human body, and intermediate - cattle. A person is infected by eating poorly processed meat. Initially, symptoms are absent. However, later, colic, upset emptying weight loss appear. Also, there are nervousness, fatigue, always hungry. Pork tapeworm is more dangerous than bovine tapeworm. Larvae are often localized in the eyes, brain and spinal cord, that’s why there are loss of vision, severe headaches, mental disorders, convulsions, paralysis. Often, it can be life-threatening. Broad tapeworm is up to 15 m. A person is infected by eating poorly cooked or roasted fish. The symptoms - weakness, dizziness, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, or alternating diarrhea and constipation - often weak. Characteristic feature - the appearance of bright red painful spots and cracks on the tongue.

One of the most dangerous parasites to humans are Echinococcus. They live in the intestines of animals, mostly dogs. People get it from dogs and cats, as well as during the removal and cutting skins of wild animals. Tapeworm larvae develop in the liver, lungs, spleen, bones, brain or kidneys. In the liver, lungs, brain, muscle, kidney cyst develops. Dangerous complications of hydatid cysts are festering or break it with the colonization of peritoneal, pleural or other cavities. Spontaneous fractures are possible with bone disease. If the cyst is formed in the brain, it is accompanied by severe headaches, seizures convulsions and other symptoms typical of a brain tumor.

If organs are affected by multilocular echinococcus, the operation does not make sense, since the larvae destroy the entire fabric of the body. In this form the liver is usually affected. Despite intensive treatment, almost all patients die.

Tapeworm eggs are covered by animals (dogs, foxes, etc.) and contained in their feces. Therefore, care should be taken when communicating with animals. Fruits, growing near the ground before using should be washed thoroughly.

Treatment of helminthic diseases

Anthelmintic drugs are prescribed, they weaken the parasites. Laxatives help eliminate paralyzed and dead worms from the intestinal tract. Natural remedies are used against tapeworms - bark decoction of pomegranate extract, male fern root, pumpkin seeds.

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