Cardiology

Embolism

Embolism – a condition in which there is a blockage of the vessel lumen embolus – particles, which is brought by the bloodstream (detached blood clot, fat from damaged tissues or air, which trapped in the vessel, etc.). Pulmonary embolism, embolism of blood vessels, brain, heart, can cause death. After the blood clot (embolus) enters the artery, it moves with the flow of blood for as long as is stuck in a smaller artery lumen, thus blocking the blood flow in it. If a blood clot clogs an artery, it therefore violated the supply of tissues with arterial blood. Tissue due to the lack of blood flow will soon begin to experience a lack of oxygen and other important substances, which leads to their slow death (necrosis). Embolism of the lower extremity arteries appears suddenly a sharp pain in his leg, the skin on the leg becomes cold, pale, muscle tone tissue decreases, sensitivity is violated.

Symptoms

Pulmonary embolism:

  • Shortness of breath, palpitations, chest pain.
  • Loss of consciousness.

Embolism of lower limb arteries:

  • Pain in the affected leg.
  • Loss of consciousness.
  • Sensory disturbances, paralysis, and cold extremities.

Causes

Blood clots (as long as they do not come off the walls of blood vessels and do not move through the blood, they are called thrombi) clog arteries. Torn areas clot are called emboli. The most common is pulmonary embolism, in which a portable with blood embolus stuck in the pulmonary artery. Embolus, which was stuck in another artery, usually cause systemic embolism. In this case, the source of emboli formation is usually a blood clot in the heart, which is possible for a heart attack. Clinical manifestations of embolism depend on where the jam embolus. Clots contribute to the damage of the vascular wall (atherosclerosis, septic valvular heart disease), slowing blood flow and changes in the blood coagulation system.

Risk of embolism is most often experienced by women who use hormonal birth control pills, as well as smokers. Often venous congestion of lower extremity occurs precisely in women who smoke.

If the damage of the heart, such as mitral valve disease or after a heart attack, blood clots can form. This happens when there is thrombosis of the lower limbs. After immobilization of the lower extremity, for example, using plaster, velocity of blood flow in the veins of the lower extremities slows. In addition, smoking, hormonal contraceptive pills, lack of fluid in the body has an effect on blood clotting. For example, if the body is not getting the right amount of fluid in heavy physical exertion, the blood “thickens”. If several of these factors simultaneously manifested, then the probability of blood clots increases.

Treatment

When embolism, surgical or medical treatment is used. The most effective method of treatment – the removal of a blood clot from the artery by surgery (follow the so-called embolectomy). However, in pulmonary embolism, this operation would have been extremely difficult and dangerous for the patient. On the other hand, pulmonary embolism is often not so hard, so there are no indications for compulsory surgery. Meanwhile, the operation – the best way out of the lower limb embolism. When there is no possibility of embolus removal by surgery, doctors try to dissolve a blood clot with drugs. This method of treatment is called thrombolysis. But it is not always possible to use, for example, the bleeding can be opened using this method in postoperative patients. In the application of thrombolysis to prevent the formation of new blood clots, doctors prescribe medications that reduce blood clotting.

First of all, for the prevention of embolism patient should stop smoking. You should also get rid of the excess weight, move more and eat right. A family doctor can get more information on the recommended interventions to prevent embolism.

There are many clinical forms of emboli, so there is no universal advice.

In order to prevent embolism doctor conducts some research: measure blood pressure, determines the level of glucose and lipids (fats) in the blood. In addition, an electrocardiogram (ECG) is regularly performed to patient.

Course of the disease

When embolism, tissues are affected as a result of insufficient blood supply.

Prompt treatment is necessary, it is to restore patency of arteries. Function of the affected artery transferred to collateral arteries, their spontaneous expansion occurs, which prevents tissue damage. A common cause of embolism – atherosclerosis. Blood clots are formed on the walls of the blood vessel. Due to the fact that these lesions at present are incurable, embolism can be repeated.

The most common type of embolism – blockage of the arteries of the lower limbs or pulmonary blood clot, which is separated from the blood vessel wall. But there are other bodies whose functions may be impaired due to congestion of blood clots.

Embolism of mesenteric arteries

The intestine is supplied with blood from the upper and inferior mesenteric arteries. Embolism may occur one of these arteries. Characteristic and dangerous symptom – sudden paroxysmal abdominal pain, decreasing in a few hours. When, some time later, the pain started again, then the affected part of the intestine is no longer possible to save. If the clot is removed immediately, the patient immediately improved, and the affected part of the intestine can be saved.

Fat embolism

Sometimes after bone fractures fat droplets enter the lungs, and that leads to embolism. Fat embolism can affect the kidneys, heart and brain.

Pneumathemia

The presence in the blood of more than 60 ml of air leads to disruption of cardiac function and heart failure. Pneumathemia can occur while the decompression sickness.

Embolism and thrombosis

Thrombosis – the formation of a blood clot in the lumen of the blood vessel. A blood clot in the vessel wall is called a thrombus, a blood clot that was separated from him – embolus. With blood embolus can get into the artery. When artery is clogged, embolism appears.