Dysentery (bacillary dysentery, shigellosis) – an infectious disease with fecal-oral transmission, which is caused by bacteria genus Shigella. Dysentery is characterized by severe diarrhea. High severity of the colonic mucosa up to necrosis can occur, in extreme cases – bowel perforation. Infectious dose is very low with dysentery. Circulatory disorders, nerve damage, paralysis can occur. Shigellosis – rapidly spreading infection. Due to the possibility of an outbreak of the disease in each case, physician should be made aware of the competent medical authority. Shigellosis outbreaks often occur in closed institutions – orphanages, military, prisons.
- Cramping abdominal pain.
- Temperature up to 40°C.
- Intense painful diarrhea (up to 30 times a day).
Dysentery pathogens are bacteria of the genus Shigella. They are widely distributed throughout the world. The source of infection – the sick people or bacillicarriers. The main transmission routes – fecal-oral and contact-household (through water, food). Insect vectors – flies also carry the pathogen to food. Therefore, the main means of prevention of dysentery – personal hygiene. The severity of the disease depends on the type of pathogen, which is determined by laboratory tests. Some cause only mild diarrhea.
The physician must treat very intense infection and symptoms. The bacteria are destroyed with high doses of antibiotics. Fluid is injected into a vein droplets to compensate for its lack with diarrhea. In extreme cases, dehydration may be fatal. In severe cases, artificial feeding of patients is used, then the patient is transferred to the sparing diet, and later – in the normal diet.
In the event of the disease you should drink plenty of fluids. It is best to drink mineral water or more salted boiling water. Prevention – the observance of personal hygiene, drinking only boiled water, carefully processed foods. It is recommended to drink less cold water because cold liquid, affecting the intestine, can manifest latent dysentery. Before traveling to tropical countries you should get vaccinated. True, the vaccine does not protect against infection, but the disease will be more lenient.
Cramping abdominal pain, fever, intense and painful diarrhea can be the first symptoms of dysentery. To avoid severe complications you should seek medical advice immediately.
First of all, the doctor will make the stool to determine the seeding agent; will perform a blood test for the presence of endotoxins and exotoxins. Upon confirmation of the diagnosis of dysentery patient is hospitalized for infectious diseases hospital, where he was treated. At work he cfn return only after full recovery.
Course of the disease
The bacteria primarily irritate the colon, which starts to develop more secret. Mucosa is affected by inflammation, ulcerated, fabric dying, softened. The stools are normal at first, then they have an admixture of mucus and blood, and in more severe cases, only a small amount of bloody mucus. Bacteria enter through the walls of the blood vessels and can disrupt blood circulation and cause myocarditis, meningitis, encephalitis, an inflammation of the joints. Shigellosis usually is uneventful. However, a person who has been suffered the disease, for the next three months can release into the environment dangerous bacteria.
If the disease persists for more than 3 months, it can become chronic dysentery. It can occur in the form of individual exacerbations rarer continuous flow. Such patients are Bacillicarriers, ie sources of infection.