Cardiology

Decompression sickness

Caisson – a waterproof camera that is used for underwater work at great depths. Today, diving is becoming increasingly popular pastime, so it is not surprising that the more common cases of decompression sickness. Symptoms of decompression sickness are different – from joint pain in the first 24 hours after lifting unconscious immediately after lifting. Ailments depends on depth and the speed of recovery. Decompression sickness – a disease that occurs when a rapid transition from a medium with increased pressure in the medium with the lower pressure.

Symptoms

  • The pressure in the ears and dizziness.
  • Pain in the joints.
  • Skin rash, itching.
  • Fatigue, shortness of breath.
  • Weakness and (or) lack of sensitivity in the limbs,
  • Bleeding from the ears and nose.
  • Drowsiness to loss of consciousness.
  • Paralysis.

Causes

To understand the mechanism of the bends is to find out what is happening. For example, a dip per 10 feet of water on it the pressure of the water (one atmosphere) is twice greater than the pressure at the surface. At 20 feet of water pressure increases to 2 atmospheres (such pressure corresponds approximately to the air pressure in the tires as the car). For example, the volume of the ball on the ground without excessive pressure is 2 litres, and a 20-meter depth of the volume of the ball will be four times less. Thus, the 2 litres is compressed to 1/2 litres. This happens with the air, which diver breathes to a depth. A 20-meter depth in his lungs into the blood with every breath gets four times more air than in the water. Gases, which are contained in the air, the diver breathes, such as oxygen and nitrogen, are dissolved in the blood. With the rapid rise of the diver with the 20 m depth to the surface excessively dissolved in the blood gases do not have time to be output through the lungs, resulting in the transfer of gases in blood and tissues of the dissolved gaseous state with the formation of bubbles (like a freshly opened bottle of champagne). Bubbles in the blood (mainly nitrogen) are hazardous to human health. A small amount of gas destroys the blood circulation in the organs, if too many bubbles, blood flow stops. If a person fails to be placed in a pressure chamber, possibly fatal. Decompression sickness can occur as a result of the pilots cabin depressurization.

Treatment

The only means of treatment – the timely placement of patients in the pressure chamber. After the restoration of the pressure that had a diver in deep water, the danger disappears. The pressure is then gradually reduced.

Amateur divers in any case should not dive to great depths without experienced instructors.

Symptoms of decompression sickness may occur long after recovery. Therefore quite frequent cases initially misdiagnosis. Before you dive with mask and oxygen cylinder, first of all, you need find out where the nearest recompression chamber if emergency care need.

The doctor will try as quickly as possible to bring the patient to the nearest hospital, which has a pressure chamber.

Too rapid ascent to the surface with a delay of air causes emphysema. In addition, there are a strong sense of pressure in the ears, bleeding from the nose and ears, and dizziness. In an extreme case, there are paralysis, pulmonary embolism, and rupture of the lung tissue.

When diving with an oxygen cylinder emphysema can occur at shallow depths. A man must be instructed in the use of diving equipment.