Medical Encyclopedia

Bronchiectasis

What is bronchiectasis?

The trachea is divided into the bronchial tubes - tubular aeriferous branches, which do not allow fallen down cartilaginous rings, which are in their walls. Human bronchi are compressed to normal size with a strong exhale through the small muscles. As a result of a variety of diseases and certain congenital disorders expansion of cylindrical or saccular shape (bronchiectasis) may occur in the bronchi. Bronchiectasis is characterized by cough, sputum with blood and odor, as well as fever, frequently recurring bronchitis, pneumonia and even abscesses.

Symptoms of bronchiectasis

  • Cough.
  • Sputum.
  • Hemoptysis.
  • Weakness.
  • The high temperature.
  • Frequent shortness of breath.

Causes of bronchiectasis

There are two types of bronchiectasis: birth - the presence of changes in the lungs of the newborn as a result of violations of the formation of the bronchi of the fetus; acquired - occurring in children and adults suffering from frequent lung infections. Bronchiectasis is not inherited. Bronchiectasis also occur in congenital pathologies, such as Kartagener syndrome, which is characterized by congenital abnormalities, or in the presence of nasal polyps. Bronchiectasis rarely occurs in infants and young children with metabolic disorders - cystic fibrosis. Acquired bronchiectasis can be caused by foreign bodies in the bronchial tubes, swelling, or other inflammatory diseases of the upper or lower respiratory tract infections such as sinusitis, bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, polypoid ethmoiditis, infections or colds. Often there is bronchiectasis due to a sharp exhalation while increasing the air pressure in the bronchi (coughing, blowing the nose, congestion secretion in the lungs). The probability of occurrence of bronchiectasis increases with the weakening of the bronchial wall due to the nearby chamber inflammation.

Treatment of bronchiectasis

Bronchiectasis

Bronchiectasis - an irreversible abnormal enlargement of the bronchial tubes as a result of inflammatory destruction of the bronchial wall, so doctors use symptomatic treatment: anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, trying to cure the disease, stimulating the emergence of bronchiectasis. If the patient's condition worsened, surgery is possible.

If there are cough for a few days, hemoptysis, mucosa, watery or purulent sputum with a foul smell and mixed with blood, you should seek medical attention.

The doctor will examine a patient with a percussive back, chest and lung auscultation, will perform an X-ray and other tests of lung function and bronchial tubes, and will conduct laboratory analysis of sputum. The doctor, assessing the results of sputum culture, prescribes antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, inhalation, breathing exercises.

Course of the disease

Bronchiectasis appears quite slowly and quietly, often in childhood. The main symptom of the disease - a cough with purulent sputum scant. Bronchiectasis has a negative effect on respiratory function in connection with the violation of the relevant parts of the lung ventilation, which are almost not supplied with oxygen. Blood circulation in the lungs is disturbed, there is stagnation of blood in the heart, working with excessive load. Blood leaks through the mucosa into the bronchi. In addition, you may experience emphysema (stretching and rupture of the pulmonary alveoli), further impairing the function of the lungs. The patient loses appetite, begins to lose weight, the look of his limbs changes (deformity of the fingers as drumsticks).

Other articles:

Pneumonia

Pulmonary edema