Medical Encyclopedia

Bacterial infections

What are bacteria?

Bacteria - a group of microscopic, single-celled organisms, mostly. Bacteria needed to break down organic matter. They are on a person's skin, mucous membranes in the digestive tract, some of which are vital to man. Bacteria are diverse in form, for example, cocci - spherical, rod - cylindrical, spirochetes - spiral. Some bacteria have flagella, they can move. Rod-shaped bacteria form heat-resistant endospores – it is bacilli. Aerobic bacteria need oxygen, anaerobic - it requires a minimum amount. Some bacteria can not live in the environment in the presence of oxygen, the other - in its absence.

Symptoms of bacterial infections

  • Abdominal pain.
  • Nausea.
  • And for each infectious disease excrete their symptoms.

Causes of bacterial infections

Pathogenic bacteria cause infection. Pathogenic bacteria can become the natural microbial flora of the human, for example, with the weakening of immunity or due to other reasons than usual start to breed certain strains of bacteria. But the most common bacteria that cause disease in humans come from the outside, for example, in contact with the patient or bacillicarriers. Usually, the bacteria enter the body through the mouth or nose, but the blood or lymphatic system; they can enter through open wounds.

Types of bacterial infections

Bacteria cause many diseases. For example, streptococci cause a sore throat, pneumococci are often the cause of inflammation of the middle ear, causing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, meningococci contribute to the appearance of the brain and inflammation of the membranes (or) of the spinal cord (meningitis). Other known bacterial infection - tetanus, anthrax, typhoid, cholera and plague. Bacteria cause some childhood diseases such as whooping cough, scarlet fever, diphtheria.

Treatment of bacterial infections

Bacterial infections

After creating a very effective drugs - antibiotics, most bacterial infections are not as dangerous as before. Antibiotics - are organic substances formed by microorganisms and have the ability to kill germs. Antibiotics are also known as antibacterial agents derived from plant and animal cells. They are used in the form of tablets, intravenous and intramuscular injections. Some antibiotics inhibit the growth and reproduction of bacteria, while others are killed. The first group of antibiotics, bacteriostatic action include tetracycline, chloramphenicol, the second, has a bactericidal effect - penicillin, rifamycin and aminoglycosides.

People can protect themselves from bacterial infections can, avoiding contact with infected people, correct processing of food and observing the rules of personal hygiene. Light infections usually go away. Of some bacterial infections can be vaccinated. First of all, it is recommended to vaccinate children against childhood diseases, as well as when traveling to exotic countries.

First of all, doctors found an exact diagnosis of bacterial infection. Without additional studies antibiotics are prescribed only for patients with conventional infectious diseases, diagnostics are not difficult. In severe cases, you must install the infectious agents: there are bacteria that are resistant to certain groups of antibiotics.

Course of the disease

In some people, antibiotics cause an allergic reaction - usually a skin rash. In such cases, you need to see a doctor who will prescribe a different medicine. If the patient is not paying attention to an allergic reaction, takes antibiotics again, it is possible anaphylactic shock with the probability of death.

If you take antibiotics without adherence education, the bacteria that are found in the body can develop resistance to these antibiotics.

Other articles:

Actinomycosis

Amoebiasis