All motions of man are controlled by a cerebrum. Electric impulses which are sent by a cortex, through a spinal cord and outgoing from him nerves arrive at the proper muscles. The great number of neurons takes part in this process. These neurons can be divided into two groups:
- Bodies of one neurons are disposed in the bark of large hemispheres, impulses on a long fibre arrive at a spinal cord. All this group of nerves is named a pyramid highway.
- Bodies of other neurons are in a spinal cord and form a few nervous ways. Neurons gain impulses on a pyramid highway and pass them to the muscles.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease at which motive neurons of cortex, and also a pyramid highway and peripheral nerves is struck. There are paralyses of muscles. Unlike the dissipated sclerosis at an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis motive disorders are not accompanied a fall a sensitiveness. A disease makes progress slowly. At first muscles begin to weaken. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis affects men three times more often than women. The disease usually arises up between the ages of 40-60 years.
- Muscle weakness.
- Progressive muscle atrophy.
- Painful muscle cramps.
- Progressive paralysis.
In spite of intensive researches, causes of this neurological disease until now are not clear. True, for some patients the inherited character of disease was set.
There are no facilities, able to stop progress of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Paralyses increase in course of time. Hormones, affecting hypophysis, are prescribed to the patient, but their use is not always giving positive results.
A patient cannot influence on the course of the disease.
Appearance of the above-described symptoms of disease does not necessarily mean amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Most reasons, which cause cramps and twitches of muscles, are not as dangerous as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However in case of occurring of these symptoms it is necessary immediately to appeal to the neurologist.
For exact establishment of diagnosis a doctor will conduct the great number of different researches of muscles and nerves. A doctor will take blood of patient on an analysis, execute an electromyography and electroneurography. It is also very important anamnesis of the disease and monitoring of symptoms of the disease.
Course of the disease
An amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a very serious disease. About 80% patients die during the first three years. Motions of hands are slowed, fingers become less obedient. In the developed stage of illness from heavy paralyses possibility of independent movement is lost. Paralyses make progress gradually, the paralysis of respiratory and pharyngeal muscles is possible. At the paralysis of swallowing muscles saliva and food can get into the lungs and cause pneumonia. An amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is constantly progressing.
The symptom of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is brief reduction of separate bunches of muscle fibers, showing up as a hypodermic trembling (fasciculation). Usually it meets at comparatively not dangerous nervous violations.