Medical Encyclopedia

Amoebiasis (amoebic dysentery)

What is amoebiasis?

Amoebic dysentery or amoebiasis - a parasitic disease is caused by an amoeba. The disease is characterized by tissue-dissolving ulcerative lesions of the colon. Pathogens – amoebas are single-celled organisms of about 0.02 mm, which affects the lining of the colon. Amoebas that cause dysentery can reproduce only in the intestine. The life cycle of tissue-dissolving amoeba consists of two phases - vegetative and resting stage, successive depending on the environment. Amoeba enters the body in the form of cysts. Infiltrating into the digestive tract, cysts become luminal form. Luminal form after penetration into the thick mucus and submucosal layers of the colon wall is greatly increased in size and turned into tissue forms. After contact with cysts in the bowel disease can occur after a few days.

Symptoms of amoebiasis

  • Abdominal pain.
  • The urge to defecate.
  • Nausea. Intense diarrhea with severe pain.
  • Watery stools mixed with blood.
  • Frequent stools.

Causes of amoebiasis

Source of the disease - carrier cysts or chronic patient in remission. Mechanism of infection is by the fecal-oral. Transmission path is food, water, pin. Often carriers of cysts are mosquitoes or flies. Cysts reach the intestine, live in the intestinal lumen (luminal form), eating its contents, without causing ill effects. Invades the intestinal mucosa and multiply it (tissue form), cysts is caused ulceration and severe colitis, which may lead to perforation (tear) cancer. Amoeba can enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body.

Treatment of amoebiasis

Amoebiasis

Amoebiasis is successfully treated with antibiotics. Doctors prescribe additional medications containing minerals or dropper to compensate for the lack of liquid. Sometimes relapse is possible.

In case of recurrence bowel obstruction can occur, it is life-threatening, so doctors have to operate.

The risk of infection can be reduced by amoebiasis, observing the rules of basic hygiene and to drink only boiled water and eat at food establishments, trust.

If the diarrhea started pulling abdominal pain, see your doctor. Amoebiasis is rare in Europe and USA. However, any infectious disease of digestive tract can be serious and dangerous.

The doctor will do laboratory research stool for it with a microscope, make fecal culture, placing it in an environment in which agents will start to grow. Then, after the identification of the causative a doctor prescribes treatment.

Course of the disease

Amoebas cause inflammation and ulcers of the colon mucosa. Necrosis of large areas of the mucosa is possible. Especially dangerous is the perforation of the colon or becoming infective in bloodstream.

Then the area of inflammation may occur in the liver and lungs, sometimes even in the heart muscle or brain. In the acute phase of the disease risk arises due to frequent diarrhea: lost a lot of minerals and especially liquid. A stool of patients’ amoebiasis is liquid watery, slimy (often bloody).

Amoebiasis is dangerous to human life because there is a big possibility of fluid loss. Before the introduction of the liquid droplets you need to drink more mineral or salted boiling water.

Amoebas

Amoeba - microscopic single-celled organisms, is characterized by the presence of pseudopodia, ie constantly changing its form protrusions of the cytoplasm in which the cell moves. Amoeba surrounded the plasma membrane. Amoeba is characteristic functions such as digestion, respiration and excretion. Amoebas have asexual reproduction (by dividing in two.)

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